Gustavo Gutierrez is the originator of Liberation theologian. Liberation theology is a practical theology that focuses on the liberation of the oppressed through the practice (praxis) of social activism and taking action to help the poor. In this passage for example, he discusses Guaman Poma de Ayala taking action to “promote justice and help for the poor”. Liberation theologians see suffering and evil as due to human action, specifically the actions of the oppressor, not the oppressed. The oppressed suffer the “evil of misfortune”, which they can be liberated from by taking action against the oppressor.
Liberation theology includes the foundational belief that we are all “the daughters and sons of God” but that "God prefers the poor in a special sense…the whole Bible is written from the perspective of the poor: its promise, its promises, are for the poor". It is also a theology of hope in that even in asking the question “My God, where are you?” Gutierrez points out we are showing faith that there is a higher power.
Liberation theology includes scripture as a source of authority when interpreted as a source of faith and hope for liberation from oppression. Reason is used to reflect on injustice and to critically investigate the sources of oppression. The empowerment of the oppressed is found in the language of the Bible, with phrases like “Blessed are the meek for they will inherit the earth” in Matthew 5:5 and “Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled.” In Matthew 5:6.
Salvation comes in the form of earthly works. Freedom from sin would be achieved by stopping the oppression that a person is responsible for through their role in capitalism. Helping the poor and oppressed is the job both of the church and also of the individual who can take care of their neighbors.
In Liberation theology, experiences of oppression and liberation are foundational to the theology and necessary for salvation. Gutierrez will be looking for stories like we find in Exodus 2: 23-25, where the king of Egypt dies and God hears the cries of the enslaved Israelites. In this story, God remembers his covenant with the sons of Israel, and in Exodus 3: 7-12 he speaks to Moses about bringing his people out of Egypt. This is a story of oppression and salvation through God’s hand and his followers that is used as a standard example of liberation.
Gutierrez would also be looking for places where God calls upon a person or people to help the poor and in particular stories of Jesus using his power or influence to heal and empower. In Luke 10: 28 we are told to love our neighbors as we love ourselves, setting us as the caretakers of those around us in need of help. He would also look at systems of oppression and those who are causing evil and oppression and their need to repent and change their ways in order to find salvation.
Solle, Dorothee. Thinking about God: An Introduction to Theology. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers. 1997. (39)